A group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose) is called diabetes mellitus. The cells that make up the muscles and other tissues rely heavily on glucose for energy. Additionally, it is the brain’s primary fuel source. Each type of diabetes has a distinct primary cause.
However, having diabetes can result in high blood sugar levels, regardless of the type. A blood sugar level that is too high can cause serious health issues so knowing the symptoms and causes of diabetes
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are both types of chronic diabetes. Pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes are two types of diabetes that can be reversed. When blood sugar levels are higher than normal, you have prediabetes. However, the levels of blood sugar are not high enough to be considered diabetes. Additionally, unless preventative measures are taken, prediabetes can progress to diabetes. Diabetes gestational occurs during pregnancy. However, it might go away once the child is born.
In a matter of weeks, type 1 diabetes symptoms can begin. The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes can appear so insignificant that you may not even notice them. They typically appear gradually over the course of several years. Numerous people with type 2 diabetes do not exhibit any symptoms. Some people don’t know they have diabetes until they have health issues related to it, like heart problems or blurry vision.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
The immune system, the body’s system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes may be brought on by environmental factors like viruses and genes, according to scientists. Insulin needs to be taken every day by people who have Type 1 diabetes. It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes as a result. People who have type 1 diabetes may also have nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months and can be severe. Type 1 diabetes usually starts when you’re a child, teen, or young adult but can happen at any age.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
When your body becomes resistant to insulin and your blood sugar rises, you have type 2 diabetes. According to a trusted source, between 90 and 95 percent of diabetics have type 2. Insulin resistance, a condition in which fat, muscle, and liver cells do not efficiently utilize insulin, typically marks the beginning of type 2 diabetes. Consequently, your body requires more insulin to facilitate glucose entry into cells. To meet the increased demand, the pancreas initially produces more insulin. Blood glucose levels rise as a result of the pancreas’ inability to produce enough insulin over time.
Causes of Prediabetes
The stage that comes before Type 2 diabetes is this type. You have higher than usual levels of glucose in your blood, but not enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
Causes of Gestational Diabetes
During pregnancy, high blood sugar is known as gestational diabetes. This kind of diabetes is caused by hormones that block insulin that is made by the placenta. Insulin resistance, which affects all women in late pregnancy, is exacerbated by hormones produced by the placenta. Although some pregnant women are unable to overcome insulin resistance, the majority can produce sufficient insulin. When the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin, gestational diabetes develops.
Extra weight is linked to gestational diabetes, just like it is with type 2 diabetes. When they become pregnant, obese or overweight women may already have insulin resistance. It’s possible that being overweight while pregnant is another factor.
Risk Factors With Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes
If you are a child or adolescent, have a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes, or carry certain genes linked to the disease, you are more likely to develop the condition.
Type 2 Diabetes
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are overweight, 45 or older, have diabetes in a parent or sibling, aren’t physically active, had gestational diabetes, prediabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol, or triglycerides, or both
You are more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are overweight, are over 25 years old, had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds, or is overweight.
Diabetes-related long-term complications emerge gradually. Complications are more likely to occur the longer you have diabetes and the less tightly your blood sugar is controlled. Diabetes complications may eventually result in disability or even death. Your body’s tissues and organs are harmed by high blood sugar. Some complications that arise when you are diagnosed with diabetes are:
- stroke, heart disease, and heart attack
- numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
- skin conditions, such as bacterial and fungal infections
- vision and hearing loss
- increased thirst and urination
- increased hunger
Because of a problem with the immune system, type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented. You cannot control other factors that contribute to type 2 diabetes, such as your age or genes. However, numerous other diabetes risk factors can be controlled. The majority of diabetes prevention methods require only minor adjustments to one’s diet and fitness routine. There are a few things you can do to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes if you have been diagnosed with prediabetes:
- Engage in aerobic exercises, such as walking or cycling, for at least 150 minutes each week.
- Reduce your intake of refined carbohydrates as well as saturated and trans fats.
- Eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
- Consume less food.
- If you’re overweight or obese, try to lose 5% to 7% of your body weight.
- Drugs are sometimes an option. Metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, and others) may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes when taken orally. However, making healthy lifestyle choices is crucial. Check your blood sugar at least once a year to make sure you haven’t developed type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes.